The other HTML versions are as follows:
HTML 3.0 specifications included new features for the Netscape Navigator browser as it became very popular. The new improvements did not work on any other browsers such as Internet Explorer.
Additional browser-specific features revolutionized the need for standardization of HTML. Therefore, the World Wide Consortium (W3C) organization was formed to specify and maintain the HTML standards. HTML 3.2 was the first specification introduced by W3C in January 1997 and was fully supported by all the Web browsers.
HTML5 is a cooperative project between the W3C and the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG).W3C was busy working with XHTML 2.0 and WHATWG was working with Web forms, new HTML features, and applications. In 2006, the two groups decided to work together and develop a new version of HTML.
- More markup should be used to replace scripting
- HTML5 must be device independent
- Need for external plug-ins, such as Flash, to be reduced
- Better error handling capabilities
- The development process should be completely visible to the public.
The layout of a Page in HTML5
The basic structure of an HTML5 document remains the same. Each HTML5 page consists of a head section containing unseen elements and links and a body section where the visible elements of the document are present.HTML offers different tags to build and organize the content in the body of the document. The body structure generates a visible part of the document.
One of the elements provided for the body is <table> tag. Tables help in improving the user’s experience by helping the user to visualize the Web site in an organized manner. Eventually, other elements replaced the function of tables. These elements have the lesser code and are faster, thus facilitating the creation, portability, and maintenance of an HTML5 Web site.
HTML5 includes new elements that identify and organize each part of the document body. In HTML5, the most significant sections of a document are separated and marked. Hence, the main structure does not depend on the <div> or <table> tags.A typical HTML page would have a page header, footer, and middle page content. Within the middle page content, at the top level, it may have navigation, content, and aside columns. Also, within the content, more sections can be embedded depending on the page’s specific content.
Drawbacks in HTML 4 and XHTML
HTML 4 was a standard that was universally accepted for developing Web sites. It is a very stable coding language which ignores small coding errors. Also, HTML 4 is majorly compatible with all important browsers.
HTML5 adds new capabilities to the previous version of HTML. It is a revised code build on the basis of HTML 4. HTML5 provides major improvement through better interactivity, multimedia services, and application handling. For example, you can directly play a video or audio on any browser without the need to install external plug-ins such as Flash or Silverlight.
XHTML was a version of HTML 4 that was created along with XML. It was a rigid, standards-based language that allowed no room for errors. XHTML was supposed to be the next version of HTML 4 but due to interoperability problems, it took a backseat and HTML5 would be the next standard for Web site development.
New and More Flexible Approach of HTML5
There are various rumors with regards to HTML5 currently. It can help a simple Web site developer to even a game developer. HTML5 has different aspects to everyone. Some of the aspects of HTML are as follows
- For a Web designer, HTML5 provides descriptive semantics.
- For database administrator, HTML5 has client-side storage and caching functionality.
- For a design expert, CSS in HTML5 has been improved by added features such as advanced selectors, animations, drop-shadows, and so on.
- For a mobile programmer, a lot of features are included for mobile applications.
HTML5 is a family of technologies that gives whole new options for building Web pages and applications.
New Features of HTML5
Some of the new features introduced in HTML5 are as follows
- The <canvas> element is used for 2D drawing.
- New content-specific elements, such as <article>, <nav>, <header>, <footer>, <section>, and so on helps to structure the document.
- HTML5 has local storage support.
- The <audio> and <video> elements is available for media playback.
- New form controls, such as calendar, date, time, e-mail, URL, search, and so on have been provided by HTML5.
- The Web workers API is added to support background processes without disturbing the main process. The common problems faced by Web applications are slow performance when a large set of data is processed. This is due to the fact that all the processes are executed in a single thread. Web workers help to solve this problem.
- The Web Sockets API provides a continuous connection between a server and a client by using a specific port. Thus, the Web applications become efficient as the data can be easily exchanged between client and server without reloading the page constantly.
- Easier access to location specific data which is made available by devices having Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities. This improved functionality is achieved with the help of API.
- HTML5 allows Web applications to be executed offline by storing the files and other resources required in the application cache. Web application data is saved locally using Web SQL databases.